& BRIEFLY NOTED: For 2021-12-31 Fr: First: All of us (men) have y-chromosomes that are those of Y-Chromosome Adam back roughly some 200,000 years ago, with whatever mutations of that have occurred since..... The amount of branching at each calculated date in the past tells us what the effective population size (of men) was then, for each y-sperm that fertilizes an egg is another chance for mutations to occur.... All of us have mitochondria that are those of Mitochondrial Eve.... With the invention of agriculture, it looks as though things go bonkers. Mitochondrial lines continue to multiply at a furious pace as mutations happen. Y-chromosome lines… sharply slow down in their multiplication, as the men’s side of the effective population crashes. It looks as though at the trough, 5 thousand years ago, the men who have living descendants today only 1/20 of the fraction of women alive then who have living descendants today...
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